Network Members

University of East Anglia

Toby S. James is a Senior Lecturer at the University of East Anglia, UK.  He holds a PhD from the University of York and has been a visiting scholar at Trinity College, Dublin and the John W. Kluge Center in the Library of Congress, Washington D.C.  He has had articles published in international journals such as Electoral Studies, Contemporary Politics, Election Law Journal, Policy Studies and Parliamentary Affairs, is the author of Elite Statecraft and Election Administration (Palgrave, 2012) and is currently working on a book on Comparative Electoral Management (Routledge, forthcoming).  Toby is currently an advisor to the UK Law Commission and Lead Fellow on Electoral Modernisation to the UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Democratic Participation.  His research has been externally funded by the British Academy, Leverhulme Trust, AHRC, ESRC, Nuffield Foundation and the McDougall Trust. He has written commissioned policy report for national and international organisations.

Toby is a co-convener of the Electoral Management Network. 

McGill University

Holly Ann Garnett completed her PhD in the Department of Political Science at McGill University, where she was a student member of the Centre for the Study of Democratic Citizenship.

Her research examines how electoral integrity can be strengthened throughout the electoral cycle. She has studied the role of election management bodies, voter registration, civic literacy, convenience voting measures, and election technologies. She is a co-convener of the Electoral Management Network, and contributes to Electoral Integrity Project, where she was a visiting researcher in Sydney, Australia in 2014.

Holly Ann has been awarded SSHRC funding at the Master’s, Doctoral and Postdoctoral levels, and numerous other competitive grants and awards. She has studied at the ICPSR and ECPR methods schools, and at the Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies. She also studied as a Killam Fellow at Cornell University in 2009. She holds a Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in History and Political Science, with a minor in French from Nipissing University and a Master of Arts in Political Studies from Queen’s University.

Holly Ann is a co-convener of the Electoral Management Network. 

University of East Anglia

Leontine Loeber studied law and has worked as a legislative lawyer at the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations of the Netherlands. In this capacity she was responsible for drafting changes in the Election Law. After this, she worked at the Dutch Electoral Council, where among other tasks, she was involved with organizing elections. During this period, the Netherlands switched from e-voting to paper ballot voting. Currently Leontine works at the Council of State as a legislative lawyer. She has obtained a master in Political Science at the University of Leiden and has published articles on e-voting in the Netherlands and voter trust. Currently, she is pursuing a PhD at the University of East Anglia on the topic of election fraud.

Leontine is a co-convener of the Electoral Management Network. 

University of New South Wales

Carolien van Ham is a Lecturer in Comparative Politics at the University of New South Wales, Australia; a senior research fellow at the Electoral Integrity Project at Sydney University and a research associate at the Varieties of Democracy Institute at Gothenburg University. Dr. van Ham is currently working on the Australian Research Council funded research project (2015-2017) “Getting elections right”, investigating (a) why and under what conditions electoral reform in electoral democracies and electoral autocracies is successful; (b) how election integrity can be effectively strengthened; and (c) how election integrity affects democratization. Carolien’s research focuses on democratization and authoritarianism, electoral integrity and electoral fraud, and political representation and legitimacy. She has published articles on election integrity, democratization and representation in the European Journal of Political Science, Government and Opposition, Democratization, West European Politics and Electoral Studies, a forthcoming edited volume at Oxford University Press on democratic legitimacy in advanced industrial democracies, a book on legitimacy in the Netherlands, and book chapters in various edited volumes.

Carolien is a co-convener of the Electoral Management Network. 

University of Newcastle

Alistair Clark is Senior Lecturer in Politics at Newcastle University, UK. His research interests include electoral integrity and administration, regulation of the political process and party politics. He has published on the role of election administration, the importance of resources in improving election quality, and (with Toby James) conducted surveys of poll workers in the UK general election of 2015 and counting officers in the 2016 EU Brexit Referendum. He has also given evidence to a number of public bodies on the conduct of elections.

Tallinn University of Technology

Robert Krimmer is Full Professor of e-Governance within Ragnar Nurkse School of Innovation and Governance at the Faculty of Social Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia. Robert’s research is focused on electronic participation and democracy, as well as e-voting, the transformation of the public sector, and all issues further developing a digital society. Robert is also Associate Editor of the international scientific journal Government Information Quarterly (GIQ), where he is in charge of participation issues. He is currently member of the group of experts to the Council of Europe Ad-Hoc Committee on Electronic Voting (CAHVE) which is currently updating its recommendation on legal, technical and operational standards for Electronic Voting Rec(2004)11. Also, he was one of the lead experts for the Council of Europe Ad-Hoc Committee on Electronic Democracy and drafted Annex 1 of the CoE Recommendation (2009) on e-Democracy. Before returning to academia, Robert was OSCE/ODIHR’s first senior adviser on new voting technologies. In the past he advised CoE, EC and AWEB on electoral matters.

University of Alabama

Nicholas Kerr is an assistant professor of comparative politics in the Department of Political Science at the University of Alabama. His general research and teaching interests include African politics, democratization, electoral institutions, electoral integrity, and political corruption. In a current research project Nicholas explores the design and performance of electoral management bodies (EMBs) in Africa with emphasis on how political elites and citizens respond strategically to the autonomy and capacity of EMBs.  Another research project examines the process through which citizens formulate their perceptions of election integrity. Specifically, he looks at how direct experiences with election management, electoral manipulation, and third-party actors influence citizens’ attitudes toward election integrity. Nicholas has experience conducting qualitative fieldwork and organizing surveys in several African countries and his published work has appeared in Electoral Studies, Governance, Journal of Modern African Studies and Political Research Quarterly.

University of Cape Town

Robert Mattes is Professor of Political Studies and Director of the Democracy in Africa Research Unit in the Centre for Social Science Research at the University of Cape Town.  He is also Senior Adviser to, and co-founder of Afrobarometer, a ground-breaking regular survey of public opinion in 35 African countries. He has also has helped to launch and run other major research projects such as the African Legislatures Project, and the South African National Election Study. His research has focused on the development of democratic attitudes and practices in South Africa and across the continent.  He is the co-author (with Michael Bratton and E. Gyimah-Boadi) of Public Opinion, Democracy and Markets In Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2005), and the co-editor (with David Denemark and Richard Niemi) of Growing Up Democratic: Does It Make A Difference? (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2016). He has authored or co-authored articles in journals such as the American Journal of Political Science, British Journal of Political Science, World Development, Journal of Democracy, Democratization, and Party Politics. He is a member of the Academy of Science of South Africa, and holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (1992).

Harvard University

Pippa Norris is a comparative political scientist who has taught at Harvard for more than two decades. She is Laureate Fellow and Professor of Government and International Relations at the University of Sydney, the McGuire Lecturer in Comparative Politics at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and Director of the Electoral Integrity project. Honors include award of the the 2016 Brown Medal for Democracy by PSU, the 2016 Academic Leadership in Political Science by APSA, the 2014 Karl Deutsch award by IPSA, the 2011 Johan Skytte prize in political science, with Ronald Inglehart, the 2011 Kathleen Fitzpatrick Australian Laureate Fellowship, a ‘special recognition’ award by the UK Political Science Association, and Doctor honoris causa awarded by the University of Edinburgh and Warwick University. Book awards include the 2006 Doris A. Graber award for the best book in political communications (for A Virtuous Circle), and the Virginia Hodgkinson prize from the Independent Sector (for Sacred and Secular).

University of Copenhagen

Rasmus Fonnesbaek Andersen is an associate at the Nordic Development Corporation and Dalbert Global Development Advisors, where he focuses on using technology to improve governance in developing countries. He also serves as an election observer for regional election observation organizations and has consulted for a number of organizations on democracy and human rights support.

His PhD dissertation – competed in 2016 at the University of Copenhagen – concerned subnational regime variation and regime transitions, including the role of national election commissions, courts and parties in regulating subnational governments’ electoral practices. He has been a Visiting Fellow at the Department of Government at Harvard University with the Fulbright Program and has conducted fieldwork in Brazil and India.

University of Wisconsin - Madison

Barry Burden is Professor of Political Science, Director of the Elections Research Center, and the Lyons Family Chair in Electoral Politics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is the author of Personal Roots of Representation, co-editor with Charles Stewart ofThe Measure of American Elections, co-author with David Kimball of Why Americans Split Their Tickets, and editor of Uncertainty in American Politics. Burden has published articles in journals such as the American Political Science ReviewAmerican Journal of Political ScienceBritish Journal of Political SciencePublic Opinion QuarterlyLegislative Studies Quarterly, and Election Law Journal.


Staffan Darnolf, IFES Director of Program Development and Innovation, has 20 years of experience as a scholar and practitioner in the field of democratization and electoral processes. He specializes in electoral reform in emerging democracies and post-conflict societies and has published books, articles and chapters in peer-reviewed scholarly journals throughout his career. Darnolf has been engaged as an elections expert in over 20  countries. Most recently, he served as IFES senior global electoral adviser and led IFES’ office in Zimbabwe, where he served as a senior adviser on electoral issues concerning the drafting of the new constitution, the constitutional referendum and electoral management processes. Prior to his work in Zimbabwe, Darnolf served as IFES’ senior elections expert and country director in Moldova, Pakistan, Cambodia and Nepal (2005-2010). From 2003 to 2005, Darnolf was integrally involved in the transitional elections in Afghanistan where he was appointed an international election commissioner by the United Nations for the 2005 parliamentary elections. Between 1992 and 2003, Darnolf combined his scholarly career with regular assignments for the UN, European Union, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, IFES and the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) in western, eastern and southern Africa, eastern Europe and southeast Asia. Darnolf holds a Ph.D. in political science with a focus on elections in emerging democracies from Goteborg University in Sweden and a bachelor’s degree in public administration from the same university. He was also a visiting scholar at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies in 1998.

Aarhus University

Jørgen Elklit is professor of political science at Aarhus University, Denmark, where his fields of interest include electoral management, quality of elections, and electoral systems. He has written on these topics and he has been active in electoral management in a number of countries, including South Africa, where he was one of the international members of the 1994 independent Electoral commission (IEC) and later a member of the 2002-03 Electoral Task Team. In 2008 he was Secretary to the Independent Review Commission in Kenya, which was tasked to establish what actually happened to electoral management during the 2007 elections. He has also been used as an advisor by various bodies, including the Danish parliament, the Folketing. He is attached to the Electoral Integrity Project and was a visiting researcher in Sydney in early 2016.

King's College London

Sarah Birch is a Professor of Political Science in the Department of Political Economy at King’s College London. She previously held chairs at the universities of Glasgow and Essex.  Birch is also a fellow of the British Academy and the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Birch’s research is mainly focused on the empirical study of electoral ethics, including electoral integrity and electoral violence.


University of Sydney

Max Grömping is a PhD candidate at the Department of Government and International Relations of the University of Sydney, and Program Manager of the ‘Perceptions of Electoral Integrity’ (PEI) expert survey for the Electoral Integrity Project based at Harvard and Sydney universities. His doctoral research examines the drivers and consequences of domestic election monitoring. Other research interests include comparative political communication and comparative democratization – in particular the ability of ‘outside’ actors such as NGOs, social movements, and interest groups to influence media, public, and policy agendas. He also works on crowdsourced political participation, and the politics of ICT-afforded transparency and accountability, with a regional focus on Southeast Asia. Previously, he lectured at the Faculty of Political Science of Thammasat University, Bangkok.

Reed College

Paul Gronke (PhD Michigan, ’93, MA University of Essex ’84, BA Chicago ’82) is a professor of Political Science at Reed College in Portland, OR, and for 2014-2016 is the inaugural Daniel German Visiting Professor of Political Science at Appalachian State University. Dr. Gronke studies American politics, specializing in convenience and early voting, election administration, public opinion, and elections.

Dr. Gronke is editor of the Election Law Journal, an interdisciplinary journal of election law, administration, and politics, and co-editor of PS: Political Science and Politics, one of three flagship journals of the American Political Science Association.

Dr. Gronke’s research for the past decade has focused on the phenomenon of “early voting,” modes of balloting whereby voters can cast their ballots at a place and time other than at the polling place on Election Day.

In 2005, Dr. Gronke established the Early Voting Information Center (  EVIC searches for common sense, non-partisan solutions to identified problems in election administration that are backed by solid empirical evidence and tailored to the conditions of the time and jurisdiction, and that may or may not include the administration of early voting.  EVIC has worked with a number of state and local governments, Secretaries of State and state election directors, federal agencies, and non-profits, mostly but not exclusively related to early voting and social scientific research on election administration.

Paul lives with his family in the beautiful city of Portland, OR where he runs cycles, sits in coffee shops, gardens, and follows politics.  If you’re really nice to him, he may give you a cucumber.

Bio coming soon.

University of Gothenburg

Anna Lührmann is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Varieties of Democracy Institute (V-Dem) at the University of Gothenburg. Her research mainly focuses on democracy aid, elections, accountability and authoritarianism. Her doctoral thesis – completed in summer 2015 at Humboldt University (Berlin) – studies the electoral assistance efforts of the United Nations. From 2002-2009 she was a Member of the German National Parliament (Bundestag). After her tenure as MP, Anna Lührmann lived in Sudan for two years, where she acquired a MSc. degree in Gender and Peace Studies at Ahfad University. She also contributed to various governance capacity development activities in Sudan and throughout the MENA region (Egypt, Libya, Jordan, Tanzania). In partnership with NDI, she led the first capacity development workshops for women MPs in the newly elected Libyan parliament (2012). On behalf of UNDP’s Democratic Governance Group, she drafted a handbook on enhancing youth political participation throughout the electoral cycle.

University of Botswana

Monageng Mogalakwe obtained his PhD (Sociology) from the University of Warwick in 1994 , an MA (Sociology) from the University of Essex in 1984 and a B.Ed (Sociology and Education) from the University of Botswana and Swaziland in 1980. His area of expertise is State-Society Relations, including State-Labour relations, Political Sociology and Sociology of Development. He previously worked as a Rural Sociologist, Applied Research Unit, at the then Ministry of Local Government and Lands before joining the University of Botswana in 1988. He has edited one scholarly publication, authored one book, single authored several refereed publications, and produced several technical reports on rural development and labour relations, including two co-authored technical reports for the International Labour Organization. Prof Mogalakwe is a long-time political activist and social commentator, and was a member of South Africa’s uMkhonto We Sizwe underground support network in Gaborone, Botswana.

University of Ottawa

Michael Pal is an Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Law at the University of Ottawa, where he is the Director of the Public Law Group. He specializes in the comparative law of democracy and publishes in law, political science, and public policy. He is the co-editor of a 2017 special edition of the Election Law Journal on electoral reform around the world. He has a law degree and doctorate in law from the University of Toronto, where he was a Pierre-Elliot Trudeau Foundation Scholar, and an LLM from the NYU School of Law. He is also a Fellow at the Mowat Centre in the School of Public Policy at the University of Toronto. Professor Pal regularly appears before Parliamentary Committees and has advised governments at all levels as well as electoral boundary commissions and election commissions. He is a frequent commentator in the media.

Dr Theresa Reidy is a political scientist in the Department of Government at University College Cork. Her research interests lie in the areas of party politics, political institutions and electoral behaviour and her recent work has been published in Electoral Studies, Parliamentary Affairs and Politics. She is currently leading a comparative project on voter facilitation and engagement practices and working on the most recent general election in Ireland. Theresa has received grant funding for her research from the European Commission, Royal Irish Academy, the Irish Research Council and Irish Aid. She is a co-editor of the International Political Science Review.

Jawaharlal Nehru University

Anupama Roy is Professor at the Centre for Political Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, India.  She obtained her PhD from the State University of New York at Binghamton, USA.  Her research interests straddle legal studies, political anthropology of public institutions and gender studies. Her publications include Gendered Citizenship: Historical and Conceptual Explorations (Orient Longman, 2005, 2013), Mapping Citizenship in India (Oxford University Press, 2010, 2014), and Citizenship in India (Oxford India Short Introduction Series, OUP, 2016). Her research articles have appeared in various national and international journals, including Asian Studies Review, Australian Feminist Studies, Critical Asian Studies, and Election Law Journal. She is presently working on a book manuscript on the Election Commission of India to be co-authored with Ujjwal Kumar Singh.

University of Delhi

Ujjwal Kumar Singh is Professor in the Department of Political Science in the University of Delhi. He obtained his PhD from School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He is the author of the books Political Prisoners in India (Oxford University Press, 1998, paperback 2001) and The State, Democracy and Anti-Terror Laws in India (Sage, 2007).  He has edited Human Rights and Peace: Ideas, Laws, Institution and Movements (Sage, 2009) and co-edited Towards Legal Literacy: An Introduction to Law in India (Oxford University Press, 2008, paperback 2015). His articles have appeared in several national and international journals. He was the ICCR Rajeev Gandhi Visiting Chair Professor in Contemporary Indian Studies at University of Technology, Sydney, Australia in 2012. He is currently working on a co-authored book manuscript on the Election Commission of India.


Charles Stewart III is the Kenan Sahin Distinguished Professor of Political Science at MIT, where he has taught since 1985, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His research and teaching areas include congressional politics, elections, and American political development.

Since 2001, Professor Stewart has been a member of the Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project, a leading research efforts that applies scientific analysis to questions about election technology, election administration, and election reform. He is currently the MIT director of the project. He is also the founding director of the MIT Election Data and Science Lab.  Professor Stewart is an established leader in the analysis of the performance of election systems and the quantitative assessment of election performance. Working with the Pew Charitable Trusts, he helped with the development of Pew’s Elections Performance Index. Professor Stewart also provided advice to the Presidential Commission on Election Administration. His research on measuring the performance of elections and polling place operations is funded by Pew, the Democracy Fund, and the Hewlett Foundation. He recently published The Measure of American Elections (2014, with Barry C. Burden).

His current research about Congress touches on the historical development of committees, origins of partisan polarization, and Senate elections. His recent books of congressional research include Electing the Senate (2014, with Wendy J. Schiller), Fighting for the Speakership (2012, with Jeffery A. Jenkins), and Analyzing Congress (2nd ed., 2011).

Professor Stewart received his B.A. in political science from Emory University, and S.M. and Ph.D. from Stanford University.

Federal University of Pernambuco

Gabriela Tarouco is a professor of the Department of Political Science at Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. Her research focuses on electoral governance and party systems in Latin America. She holds a PhD in Political Science from IUPERJ – Instituto Universitário de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. She has been a visiting scholar at Kellogg Institute in 2005/2006 and also at University of Pittsburgh in 2014. Her articles have appeared in Election Law Journal and in some Brazilian journals like Brazilian Political Science Review.

St. Mary's College of Maryland

Antonio Ugues Jr. is an Assistant Professor  at St. Mary’s College of Maryland.

His primary areas of expertise include democracy, democratization, and issues related to electoral integrity. Professor Ugues’ regional specialty is in Latin American politics, with an emphasis on Mexico and Central America. He has taught courses in comparative politics, the politics of Mexico, and the politics of Latin America.

Professor Ugues’ research has appeared in several academic journals including Latin American Politics and Society, the Journal of Elections, Public Opinion, and Parties, the Journal of Legislative Studies, the Annual Review of Political and Military Sociology, and the California Journal of Politics and Policy, as well as a chapter on the impact of NAFTA on rural agriculture in Mexico in an edited volume on public policy. His most recent publication includes a chapter on election management in Central America in an edited volume titled Advancing Electoral Integrity.

At present, he is working on an original research paper exploring public evaluations of electoral institutions and the dynamics of public confidence in these institutions in Mexico.