The global spread of COVID-19 has already profoundly impacted the health and welfare of citizens around the world. Decisions being made about how elections are run during the pandemic will have a further profound effect, shaping the health of democracy in the future.
The Electoral Management Network is commissioning a range of country case studies, in collaboration with International IDEA, that will be published on this website and eventually in an edited volume.
Cases and other resources from network members will be shared on this page as they become available. Please get in touch to share your resources.
- ‘Global Overview’, International IDEA
- ‘New Development: running an election in a pandemic’ Toby James, Public Money and Management.
- Should elections be postponed because of coronavirus, Toby James, The Conversation, 16th March
- Elections and Covid-19: making democracy work in uncertain times, Toby James and Erik Asplund, Democratic Audit, 30th March.
- Electoral officials need more money to run elections during Covid-19, Erik Asplund, Toby James and Alistair Clark, Democratic Audit, 14th July 2020.
- Adapting elections to COVID-19: five key questions for decision makers, Toby James, International IDEA, 19th May 2020
Available Case Studies:
- France – Romain Rambaud, Université Grenoble-Alpes, France
- Poland – Vasil Vashchanka, International IDEA
- South Korea – Antonio Spinelli, International IDEA
- Scotland – Alistair Clark, Newcastle University
Forthcoming Country cases:
- Queensland, Australia, ‘Ferran Martinez i Coma, Griffith University, Australia
- Bavaria, Germany – Rebecca Wagner, Peace Research Institute in Frankfurt, Germany
- Spain – Jordi Barrat, Rovira i Virgili University, Brazil
- Nigeria – Ibrahim Sani, Independent National Electoral Commission, Nigeria
- Brazil – Gabriela Tarouco, Universidade Federal de Pern, Brazil
- Ghana – Fortune Agbele and Ghadafi Saibu, University of Bayreuth, Germany
- Netherlands – Leontine Loeber, University of East Anglia, UK
- Mali – Robert Gerenge, African Union
Working headline findings and recommendations:
- Many elections have been postponed around the world in response to Covid-19 (see: IDEA)
- Postponing an election is not always an undemocratic option because electoral integrity is likely to be undermined during a pandemic (see: James & Alihodzic; Asplund & James).
- The cost of holding elections during the pandemic are significantly rising, so policy makers will need to invest further resources (see: Asplund et al.)
- Low-tech solutions such as early voting provides one way in which elections can still be held because it spreads the traffic across several days – thereby enabling social distancing (see: James).
- Postal voting can be used to enable vulnerable citizens to vote. The case study from South Korea shows how extending this can be effective. The case study from Poland shows, however, that there are dangers of moving to all-postal elections, however, where electoral officials have no prior experience of the system (see: Spinelli, Vashchanka, James).
- Policy makers should consider the impact of Covid on the whole electoral cycle and not just election day (see James).
- Late legislation should be avoided, where possible, to provide certainty about the rules of the game so that they are deliverable by electoral officials (see Vashchanka, James).
- There is a danger of inaction owing to partisan disagreements – so cross-party working should be encouraged (see James).
- There should be wide consultation of citizens and stakeholder groups to identity the needs of vulnerable groups and to build confidence and transparency (see James).
- Deadlines will often have to be extended to enable electoral officials to deliver the election (see: Clark).
Other Guidance for holding an election during COVID
- Elections and Covid-19, International IDEA International IDEA
- Safeguarding Health and Elections, Fernanda Buril, Staffan Darnolf & Muluken Aseresa, IFES, May 2020
Other Country Analysis
- Scotland: Coronavirus (COVID-19): what could the impact be on the ordinary general election to the Scottish Parliament scheduled for May 2021?, Alistair Clark and Sarah Atherton, SPICe
- UK: It was right to delay England’s local elections, Alistair Clark, Democratic Audit, 16th March 2020.
- USA: Fair Elections During a Crisis, UCL Law, April 2020
Other research from the Electoral Management Network, outside of this project:
- ‘Debate: safeguarding democracy during pandemics. Social distancing, postal, or internet voting—the good, the bad or the ugly?’ Robert Krimmer, David Duenas-Cid & Iuliia Krivonosova, Public Money and Management
Photo credit: Tedward Quinn